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"OH WATERS, TEEM WITH MEDICINE TO KEEP MY BODY SAFE FROM HARM, SO THAT I MAY LONG SEE THE SUN." - Rig Veda
"TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) did not disrupt participants’ ability to make any moral judgment. On the contrary, moral judgments of intentional harms and nonh arms were unaffected by TMS to either the RTPJ or thecontrol site; presumably, however, people typically make moral judgments of intentional harms by considering not only the action’sharmful outcome but the agent’s intentions and beliefs. So why were moral judgments of intentional harms not affected by TMSto the RTPJ? One possibility is that moral judgments typically reﬂect a weighted function of any morally relevant information that is available at the time. On the basis of this view, when information concerning the agent’s belief is unavailable or degraded, the resulting moral judgment simply reﬂects a higher weighting of other morally relevant factors (e.g., outcome). Alternatively, followingTMS to the RTPJ,moral judgmentsmight bemade via an abnormalprocessing route that does not take belief into account. On eitheraccount,when belief information is degraded or unavailable,moraljudgments are shifted toward other morally relevant factors (e.g.,outcome). For intentional harms and nonharms, however, the outcome suggests the same moral judgment as the intention. Thus,we suggest that TMS to the RTPJ disrupted the processing of negative beliefs for both intentional harms and attempted harms,but the current design allowed us to detect this effect only in the case of attempted harms, in which the neutral outcomes did notafford harsh moral judgments on their own.
".Our experiments show that belief attribution in the service of deciding right and wrong,especially in the case of failed attempts to harm, depends critically on normal neural activity in the RTPJ (Right Tempoparietal Junction). When activity in the RTPJ is disrupted, participants’ moral judgments shift toward a“no harm, no foul” mentality"